An Introduction To Quantum Physics by Anthony Philip French Edwin F.Taylor

By Anthony Philip French Edwin F.Taylor

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3 Thus mole of water, H 2 0, has a mass of 18 grams: 2 for the hydrogen atoms in each molecule and 16 for the single oxygen. ) When is expressed by the gram- applied to an element (such as helium or atomic hydrogen) the mole there 1:8, 1 an equal number N is called the gram-atom. Although of molecules in one mole of every pure substance, the relative proportions of combining ele- ments cannot by themselves tell us the value of this number N, called Avogadro's number. To find Avogadro's number one needs the measure of at least one property of an individual atom or molecule.

If the basic atomic unit of charge can be number of atoms in one gram-atom of an element can be deduced. The discovery of the electron found, then the absolute paved the way to this crucial step. The Discovery of the Electron The electron, as a constituent of discovered by J. J. Thomson in 1897. 4 of several decades of experiments by on electrical discharges in gases at established that a stream of all kinds of atoms, many low pressure. was emitted by any electrode charged rays, different some kind of rays, potential in an evacuated tube.

Transitions the effective central charge about (Z analyze the so-called to illustrate the we need more a better the details. all above discussion with one typical ex- ample. 7 A. 5 Theoretically, by Eq. 1-27, the photon energy should be given by , *" 3 =4 , . 1 keV, which checks pretty We can recognize that the way tra are generated is the radiation to be about in well. which these x-ray spec- very similar to the stimulation of optical emission lines following electron bombardment in the Hertz experiment.

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