An Introduction to Political Philosophy by A. R. M. Murray

By A. R. M. Murray

First released in 1953, this seminal advent to political philosophy is meant for either the scholar of political idea and for the final reader. After an advent and is the reason the character and goal of philosophy, Dr Murray offers a serious exam of the main theories complicated via political philosophers from Plato to Marx, paying certain consciousness to modern issues.

The e-book additionally attempts to outline the fundamental problems with philosophical value in modern politics, with specific connection with the clash among political authority and person rights, and to teach how the various ethical assumptions underlying authoritarian and democratic structures of presidency are finally dependent upon assorted theories of good judgment.

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The theory put forward by Glaucon and Adeimantus is the earliest expression of a doctrine which has been defended by several political philosophers and which was, in particular, the basis of Hobbes's theory of the state. It traces the origin of political morality to a contract made by a group of people with one another to obey certain rules which they believe will promote their several interests. Thus the theory attempts to explain political obligation, like moral obligation generally, wholly in terms of self-interest In so doing it explains morality away, perhaps less obviously than the theory of Thrasymachus, but not less completely.

The Academy was, in fact, one of the earliest universities in the modern sense of the word, and its activity continued without interruption for nearly a thousand years. The *Republic ' The theory which will be discussed in the present chapter is the Theory of the Ideal State expounded in Plato's dialogue the Republic. While, as in all the earlier dialogues, the exposition of the theory is made by Socrates, it will be referred to, for the reasons previously mentioned, as Plato's theory, although Socrates may well have inspired some of its basic ideas.

2. ) a loc. cit. Aristotle s Theory of the Best Possible State 39 destined end of a thing's development is necessarily a good end It is not clear whether this proposition is intended to be analytic or synthetic—whether Aristotle is implying that the "nature* or destined end of a thing is what is meant by its 'good', or whether he only means that that end is, as a matter of either fact or necessity, always characterized by goodness. e. that the attainment of an organism's destined end is its supreme good and defines the standard by which its actual evolution must be approved or condemned It would, however, be untrue to say that the Politics as a whole justifies this interpretation of Aristotle's conception of morality.

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