A Typology of Verbal Derivation in Ethiopian Afro-Asiatic by Tolemariam Fufa

By Tolemariam Fufa

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Extra info for A Typology of Verbal Derivation in Ethiopian Afro-Asiatic Languages

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38 The Causative in Amharic 32b. ’ In (32) set ‘woman’ is not the causer of the causative structures. Although the subject agreement element shows that the subject is third person singular masculine, there is no such subject in the structure because if such subject is found at subject position, the structure becomes ungrammatical as it is shown in (32c). Causative verbs such as asäññ- ‘to make wish for’ and as-t’äll- ‘to make hate something’ have similar characteristics. Like in Oromo, these causerless constructions are subjectless in the sense that the ending on the verb is in fact the default form and does not refer to a logical subject.

S-reduction rule […s]stem + [s…]affix→[…s…] Verbs such as ajjees- ‘kill’ and leejjis- ‘break in a horse’ are cited to justify the Sreduction rule. As Lloret notes, when the causative morpheme –s- is added at the first cycle to the word ajjees-, the /s/ phoneme of the stem is reduced; and at the second cycle the causative morpheme –i(i)s- is added to derive the causative ajjeesis- ‘make kill’. Lloret argues that the verb leejjisis- ‘make break in horse’ is derived in the same way. I consider such an explanation doubtful mainly for three reasons: first, I assume that verbs such as ajjees- ‘kill’ to be frozen causatives.

The fact that –is- could be dropped when the corresponding stems are used with the verb jeɗ ‘to say’ to express the same concept shows that –is- is not part of the verb root. , to say stop’ are ideophonic verbs. In these forms the causative –isalternates with the verb to say jeɗ- ‘say’. Sound emission intransitive causatives include verbs such as korr-is- /korr jeɗ- ‘to moan’, č’all-is- / č’all jeɗ- ‘to be quiet’, girr-is / girr jeɗ- ‘to blaze’, etc. Ideophones can be used as verbs either by compounding them into the verb ‘to say’ or by verbalizing them through a causative suffix –is, CAUS1.

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