A Short Grammar of East Circassian (Kabardian) by Ranko Matasović

By Ranko Matasović

This grammar could be used with a few warning, not just since it was once written through a linguist who's faraway from being a fluent speaker of Kabardian. it really is principally compilatory in nature, and plenty of examples have been drawn from the present works on Kabardian through M. L. Abitov, Mukhadin Kumakhov, and others. even if, i've got additionally excerpted and analyzed many sentences from the literature, specifically from the Nart corpus (Nārtxar, 1951, Nārtxar, 2001), and a few examples have been elicited from local audio system. even though i've got relied seriously at the released scholarly works on Kabardian, my interpretations of the information are often very assorted from these within the on hand literature. i've got attempted to process the Kabardian language from a typological standpoint, evaluating its linguistic positive aspects, which could look unusual to audio system of Indo-European languages, to related positive aspects present in different languages of the realm.

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Additional info for A Short Grammar of East Circassian (Kabardian)

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Monovalent intransitive verbs with a preverb have this prefix as well, and these verbs cannot appear in an antipassive construction, e. g. -to go). In works on Kabardian there is quite a lot of confusion regarding this problem (the conditions under which the prefix (a)w- appears are not entirely transparent), but it is clear that some verbs are always either transitive or intransitive, i. e. that the difference is lexical with some verbs (which we wouldn't expect if the intransitive construction was actually the antipassive).

Read "the boy is reading" – intransitive verb with 1 argument 39 According to Kumaxov (1971), in the closely related Adyghean language the number of "labile" verbs is significantly greater than in Kabardian. 40 Kuipers (1960) considers the opposition between a and ə in verbs a part of the wider system of "introvert" forms (with a) and "extrovert" forms (with ə) in Kabardian, where a and ə are not morphemes for "introvertedness/extrovertedness", but the realization of the feature of "openness", which, according to Kuipers, is parallel to the phonological features such as palatalization, glottalization, etc.

Af. -af. "And the old Adyghean people will become strong again". Besides temporal, the suffix -ž- also has directional (spatial) meaning, signifying the reverse direction of the action. Thus, while k'wan means "to go", k'wažən means "to return", while tən is "to give", təžən is "to give back", etc. g. ba is "a lot, many", naχəba is "more", and naχəbaž is "even more". “ From the descriptive point of view, it can be said that the suffix –ž- indicates that the lowest Macrorole argument of the verb (in traditional terms its „intransitive subject or direct object“) is doubly affected by the action: with nonreflexives, this may mean either that the action is performed twice („again“) on (or by) that argument, or that the action is directed „back“ at it.

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