By G Antoniou; Frank Van Harmelen
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Extra resources for A semantic Web primer
A hierarchy speciﬁes a class C to be a subclass of another class C if every object in C is also included in C . For example, all faculty are staff members. 1 shows a hierarchy for the university domain. Apart from subclass relationships, ontologies may include information such as • properties (X teaches Y) • value restrictions (only faculty members can teach courses) • disjointness statements (faculty and general staff are disjoint) • speciﬁcation of logical relationships between objects (every department must include at least ten faculty members) In the context of the Web, ontologies provide a shared understanding of a domain.
In many, if not most, cases their role will be to collect and organize information, and present choices for the users to select from, as Michael’s personal agent did in offering a selection between the two best solutions it could ﬁnd, or as a travel agent does that looks for travel offers to ﬁt a person’s given preferences. Semantic Web agents will make use of all the technologies we have outlined: • Metadata will be used to identify and extract information from Web sources. • Ontologies will be used to assist in Web searches, to interpret retrieved information, and to communicate with other agents.
Similarly, the structure of an XML document must be deﬁned. This can be done by writing a DTD (document data deﬁnition), the older approach, or an XML schema, the modern approach that will gradually replace DTDs. 4 describes namespaces, which support the modularization of DTDs and XML schemas. 5 is devoted to the accessing and querying of XML documents, using XPath. 6 shows how XML documents can be transformed to be displayed (or for other purposes), using XSL and XSLT. 2 The XML Language 27 The XML Language An XML document consists of a prolog, a number of elements, and an optional epilog (not discussed here).